Any disorder of the heart is covered by the term Heart Disease. In Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States heart disease is the leading cause of death. As a result of heart disease, one in every four deaths occur in the U.S..

Types of Heart Disease

Different parts of the organ are affected by the heart disease and occur in different ways.

1. Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia
An irregular heartbeat is known as Arrhythmia.
A heartbeat can lose its regular rhythm in several ways which include:

  • bradycardia, in which the heart beats too slowly
  • fibrillation, irregular heartbeat
  • premature ventricular contractions, or abnormal beats
  • tachycardia, in which the heart beats too fast

When the electrical impulses in the heart that coordinate the heartbeat do not work properly causes Arrhythmia. The heartbeat can be too fast, too slow, or too erratic.
All people experience irregular heartbeats which are common. These should be taken seriously and treated if they change too much or occur because of a damaged or weak heart.

2. Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital Heart Disease
The deformities of the heart that have been present since birth can be termed as Congenital Heart Disease. Examples are:

  • Cyanotic Heart Disease: This is a defect in the heart that causes shortage of oxygen around the body.
  • Obstruction Defects: There is partial or total blockage of flow of blood through various chambers of the heart.
  • Septal Defects: Between the two chambers of the heart there is a hole.

3. Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary Artery Disease
The supply of nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle by circulating blood is done by the Coronary Arteries.
Plaque deposits that contain cholesterol can cause damage to them or may make the coronary arteries diseased. Coronary arteries are narrowed because of buildup of plaque due to which the heart receive less oxygen and nutrients.

4. Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Due to weakness of heart muscles, the heart chambers become dilated as a result of which they cannot pump blood properly. Due to coronary artery disease, enough oxygen does not reaches the heart muscle which causes it. The left ventricle is usually affected by it.

5. Heart Failure

Heart Failure
When the heart does not pump blood around the body efficiently it causes heart failure which is also known as congestive heart failure.
The left or right side of the heart may be affected by it. Heart can become too stiff or weak to fill and pump properly because of coronary artery disease or high blood pressure.

6. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
This is a genetic disorder in which there is thickness in the wall of the left ventricle which makes it hard to pump blood out of the heart. In athletes, it is the leading cause of sudden death. There are 50 percent chance of a parent to pass the disorder to their children.

7. Mitral Regurgitation

Mitral Regurgitation
It occurs when the mitral valve in the heart does not close tightly enough. It is also known as mitral incompetence, mitral insufficiency, or mitral valve regurgitation. Due to this the blood flows back to the heart because of which the blood cannot move through the heart or the body efficiently.
Often feeling tired and out of breath can be the symptoms of it.

8. Mitral Valve Prolapse

Mitral Valve Prolapse
It is caused when the valve between the left atrium and left ventricle bulges upwards, or back into the atrium as it is not fully closed. Treatment is required if the condition is marked by mitral regurgitation. The condition is not life-threatening in most people and does not require treatment.

9. Myocardial Infarction

Myocardial Infarction
Cardiac infarction, coronary thrombosis, and heart attack are also the names by which it is called. Part of the heart muscle is damaged or destroyed by the interrupted blood flow. It is caused when one of the coronary arteries develop a blood clot and also if an artery narrows or spasms.

10. Pulmonary Stenosis

Pulmonary Stenosis
As pulmonary valve becomes too tight, it becomes hard for the heart to pump blood from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery. To overcome the obstruction, the right ventricle has to work harder. An infant can turn blue if he/she has severe stenosis. There will be no symptoms in older children.
If the pressure in right ventricle is too high, treatment is needed, and to clear the obstruction a balloon valvuloplasty or open-heart surgery may be performed.

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